Printed Circuit Boards Film Developer

After photoplotting, the individual PCB layer‘s film is produced by a developer machine. Then, under a light table, the film is manually inspected for any track
breaks, line shortages or missing of any track.

Here, the films are developed manually in a tray

Brushing Machine

After completion of drilling, the boards are to be brushed thoroughly to ensure that no stray particles remain on the board. Boards are brushed thoroughly, rinsed and
dried by this wet brushing machine.


This is used to laminate the entire board area with photoresist material. Here either positive or negative photoresist material can be used for laminating the board. We
generally use negative photo resist. Lamination is performed by rolling the photoresist coil under pressure on both sides of the moving board by heatable feed
rollers. However rotational speed is adjustable as per requirement


Plating unit

This unit is used for making printed through hole (PTH) circuit boards, where connectivity from top to bottom layer can be made through holes. Here top and
bottom layers are connected by depositing copper in holes of the board. This unit comprises all the tanks and equipment for degreasing, rinsing, catalyzing, activating,
pickling and plating the drilled and cleaned boards. These process of degreasing, rinsing, catalyzing, activating, pickling are used for removing grease, oil, dirt, soot
and other contaminants from surfaces. After thorough cleaning only copper is deposited.


Exposure system

After fixing layout‐films exactly on both sides of the laminated board the light sensitive cover is exposed by a ultraviolet light in double‐sided drawer exposure unit
with a vacuum system. After the exposure that part of the laminate, which is not protected by the layout film becomes etch‐resistent (if we use negative film &
negative photo resist).

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Install the LEDs

Photo 2. The LED is polarized and will only work right if installed the right way. The longer
lead is the anode and the shorter lead is the cathode.

Find the five (5) LEDs and take a closer look at them. See Photo 2. Each one has two long leads but one is a little longer than the other. This is important! The longer lead of each LED,
called the “anode”, goes in the hole in the PCB with the square shape. The shorter lead, called the “cathode”, goes in the hole with the round shape. Now find the line of holes along the edge
of the PCB where the LEDs are supposed to be installed. Notice that half of the holes have around shape and the other half have a square shape. Like the IC, they only work right when they
are installed the correct way. If you put them in backwards, they won’t work right at all; not even a little bit.

To build the classic tinyCylon, put the long lead in the hole with the square shape and the short lead in the hole with the round shape and push the LED all the way down until it is sitting right
on top of the PCB, with most of its leads sticking out the backside. Flip the PCB over and solder just one of the leads to the PCB. This will hold the LED in the PCB and let you flip the PCB
back over and check that the LED is still lined up right. If not, you can move the LED around until it is all lined up. Then go back and solder the other lead. Doing it this way is a lot easier
than trying to solder both of the leads at once and then trying to go back and unsolder both leads so that you can adjust the position of the LED.

Once the solder connections have cooled, clip off the extra leads sticking out the back. Do not cut into the actual solder connection.

Install one LED at a time. This is a lot easier than trying to install all five (5) LEDs at once

OK, that’s how you make the classic tinyCylon, but that’s not the only way that you can put it together.

As long as you make sure to match up the long lead with the hole that has the square shape and the short lead with the hole that has the round shape, nobody says that you have to
mount the LEDs flush with the PCB. You can leave them sticking out so that you can bend and twist the LEDs into different shapes; just don’t let the leads touch each other or it won’t work

You can also mount the LEDs from either side of the PCB as long as the long-leg-square-hole rule is followed. The only component that can’t be mounted on either side of the PCB is the
computer chip. The chip must be installed on the side of the PCB with the drawing of the chip on it.

The push button, the resistor and the battery holder leads can be installed correctly from either side. This flexibility lets you have all the LEDs on one side and all the other components
on the other side

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Install the push button

Step 4 – Install the push button

Look at the PCB and find the spot where the push button wants to live. The push button’s location is marked “SW1”. Look at the push buttons legs and see how they match up with the
holes in the PCB. There is only one way that it fits. The pushbutton should snap into the PCB and hold itself there because it has slightly curved pins. It can be a very snug fit so you may have
to press hard to get it to snap into place.

Make sure all the legs of the push button are properly installed through their holes and that the bottom of the push button is laying flat against the PCB. Turn the PCB upside down again and
solder the five (5) pins of the push button to the PCB. Once the solder connections have cooled, clip the extra part of the pins that stick out the back of the PCB. Do not cut into the actual solder connection.

Step 5 – Install the computer chip

IMPORTANT NOTE: Do not handle the computer chip until you are ready to assemble your tinyCylon. It can be damaged by static electricity.

If your tinyCylon came with the IC already inserted into the PCB, you can skip the next section
and just go ahead and solder it in. It is already installed the right way. If not…

Here comes the only tricky part. The computer brain of the tinyCylon comes in a small package called an integrated circuit (IC). The IC is mostly symmetrical and it is possible to install it
backwards. It will not work at all if it is installed backwards, so there are extra clues printed on the PCB to show you the right way to install the IC. The IC has eight (8) legs or pins. The main
clue is the location of “Pin 1”, which is on one corner of the IC. There is a small triangle printed on the top of the IC right next to Pin 1. There is also a small circle-shaped dent molded into the plastic body of the IC as well. Pin 1 on the PCB has a square shape and all the other pins are round. There is also a square white box drawn around Pin 1 on the PCB. Double check the
orientation of the chip before soldering it to the PCB. If in doubt, ask someone else to double check for you.

You might have to bend the legs of the chip together just a little bit to get all the legs to line up with the holes on the PCB. Once you’ve installed the IC on the PCB, flip it over and verify that all the pins made it all the way through their holes and are sticking out the other side.

At this point the computer chip is correctly installed on the PCB. Solder two opposite corner pins and go back and look at the other side of the PCB and make sure that the chip is still laying
flat on the PCB. Solder all the rest of the pins to the PCB. Once all the solder connections have cooled, clip off the ends of the IC legs, but do not cut into the actual solder connection

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PCB Assembly Instructions

Let’s get started building your very own tinyCylon! I would strongly suggest reading these instructions all the way through at least once before actually starting the build. It will probably
take longer to read these instructions than it will to finish building the tinyCylon!

pcb assembly

The tinyCylon was designed to be easy to assemble. If you run into any difficulty, take another look at the instructions or ask someone for help. Building the tinyCylon should be a fun activity!

Quick Start Guide

If you are an experienced kit builder, here’s all I need to tell you:
1. Install parts according to height, shortest first.
2. Observe polarity: Square pad is pin 1 or positive.
3. Use extra holes near battery connection as strain relief.

Detailed Assembly Guide

If you’d like some more hints on how to successfully build the tinyCylon, I have arranged the steps like this:
Step 1 – Parts check: Make sure you have all the parts that come with the kit.
Step 2 – Tool check: Collect the tools you will need to build the tinyCylon.
Step 3 – Install the resistor, solder, trim the leads.
Step 4 – Install the push button, solder, etc.
Step 5 – Install the computer chip, with notes on determining the right way.
Step 6 – Install the LEDs, with notes on polarity.
Step 7 – Install the battery holder.
Step 8 – Install batteries into battery holder.
That’s all there is to it! Good luck!
Let me know if you have any questions, suggestions or comments about these instructions.

Step 1 – Parts check

Check the package for all required parts:

5 LEDs
1 battery holder
1 teeny tiny screw that goes with the battery holder
1 push button
1 resistor
1 computer chip*
1 printed circuit board
1 tinyCylon sticker
The computer chip may already be inserted into the PCB
Photo 1. The computer chip might already be installed the right way on the PCB.

Step 2 – Tool check
Collect the tools needed to assemble the tinyCylon:
Soldering iron and some solder
Wire cutters
Small Phillips screw driver (maybe)

Step 3 – Install the resistor
Find the resistor. It is one of the smaller parts included in the kit. Hold the resistor between two fingers and bend the leads down with your other hand. Look at the PCB and find the place
where the resistor is supposed to go, which is marked on the PCB as “R1”. Install the leads into the holes in the PCB and push the resistor all the way down until it is laying right on top of the
PCB. There is no right or wrong way to install it. It will work either way.

Once the resistor is installed flat on the PCB, bend the leads out a little so that the resistor does not accidentally fall out when flipped over. Now turn the PCB over and solder one of the leads
to the PCB. Now go back and look at the resistor and make sure it is still laying flat against the PCB.

Solder the other lead of the resistor the PCB. After the solder connections have cooled, use the wire cutters to clip the extra leads sticking out into the air. Do not cut into the actual
solder connection.

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How Can You Use PCB Design To Create Circuit Board

Some people may find using the PCB design for work a little bit of a complex job. A lot of women stay away from using this as they feel they need to be a computer programmer or something to this kind of job. However, that is not true at all. There are many free software downloads available on the internet which will help you to do the job easily. We are going to give you step by step guide to creating circuit board using PCB. Do not worry this is going to be a fun process,

pcb layout

1. How to design the schematics

You need to first decide on design schematics for the circuit board that you are going to build. This is not a complex process at all. If you have PCB design software downloaded then you are ready to go. This software is free to download. Just search Google. But make sure you check that the website is genuine before you start downloading the software.

Now you have to draw the diagram of the circuit board that you are going to build by using the software you just downloaded. This is a lengthy process. It will not be done in just a couple of minutes.

2. Layout drawing

This process can be really fast if you are an expert of using paint to draw things. But if this is the first time when you are drawing something on the computer then the process will take you a long time. It will take some time. Do not get impatient if you do not get it all right at a first couple of tries. You can also read the tutorials that came with the software. No need to worry, you will be able to draw a near perfect layout for your circuit board eventually. It is not rocket science.

3. What to do after drawing is complete

So you are finished with the layout of your circuit board. You now need to know that you have completed the hardest part. Every step from now on will be just a piece of cake. The PCB design software you downloaded will do the next steps for you almost automatically. But there are still some steps to do. You have to submit your layout so it can get manufactured. But before you do that you need to make sure that your layout is absolutely error free.

Now chose a manufacturer and they will make the circuit board for you.

Above paragraph will be sufficient for people who are already an expert with computer and software programs. But if you are a novice with this kind of jobs, then you might need more detailed instructions. There are many free EBooks available on the internet about this topic. Yu can download them and understand the entire process. This process is little trickier to learn, but once you learn everything you will understand how easy it is to work with PCB design. Good luck.

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Eeverything You Need To Know About PCB Assembly

The term printed circuit board assembly refers to the process of attaching various electronic components to a printed circuit board to develop and complete a fully functional printed circuit assembly. Basically, there are two types of construction utilized in this process, one is the surface-mount construction, and the other is the through-hole construction. Both these methods have individual benefits when put to use. The surface mount technique takes up less space, while through-hole mounting provides strength for any component that is likely to endure physical stress in the unit. Nonetheless, both these methods have their own advantages and disadvantages in the integral process of assembly.

pcb assembly

Assembly: In Brief

PCBs are used to mechanically connect and support various electronic components by using different conductive pathways, methods, tracks and traces. These components are effectively etched from laminated sheets of copper onto a non-conductive substrate. Furthermore, once the overall PCB process is completed then electronic components are attached to produce these assembly. The component leads are carefully inserted through the holes in the PCB and the surface mount construction, and the electronic components are placed on the external pads of the printed circuit board. Lastly, the component leads in both types of this construction are mechanically fixed to the PCB with the help of soft metal molten solder.

The assembly process involves several kinds of techniques for attaching the components to this. If a high volume production is needed, it is mainly produced by bulk wave soldering, machine placement or with the help of reflow ovens. Even a mechanical assembly service expert creates the assembly unit using the above discussed methods and materials.

In this modern electronic and technological world, printed circuit board assembly services are the most important part of the electronics sector because of the utility and efficiency they offer. A printed circuit board is an electronic unit that is used to connect electrical elements into various appliances and machinery. These devices are generally found in most of the electrical devices like games, computers, i-Pods, consoles, televisions and so on. However, for the production of large scale electronic devices, electronic manufacturers often hire professional assemblers from authorized PCB assembly services to do the job.

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Assembly is one of the required manufacturing processes for the production of consumer electronics products. In the past, consumer electronics original equipment manufacturers (OEM) assembled PCBs in house. But due to the rapid development of surface mount technology and innovative manufacturing processes and equipment, PCB assembly is now often outsourced to contract electronics manufacturers who specialize in PCB Assembly.

There are decided advantages for utilizing a PCB Assembly Service. They include:

1. Less Capital Investment. To assemble PCBs in-house requires a large capital investment in manufacturing facilities, lines and machinery as well as the hiring and training of qualified personnel. As a result, it can be a long return-on-investment (ROI). Using an outsourced service just makes financial and economic sense.

2. Cost Per Unit Benefits. A consumer electronics OEM can benefit from “economies of scale” by leveraging the capital investments made by a PCB Service in facilities, equipment and personnel to generate reductions in cost per unit, which can make them more competitive in the marketplace.

3. Product Design Improvements. PCB Services sometimes include electronic design services as part of their assembly costs. These design services can verify electronic designs and make suggestions on PCB improvements, which translates into superior products with higher quality at a lower cost to you.

4. The Value of Extensive Experience. Outsourced PCB services possess extensive experience in mass-producing PCBs at the lowest possible price even for tight deadlines. This value cannot be underestimated.

5. Quality Assurance. In today’s competitive marketplace, quality assurance is critical in order to reign in unexpected costs and maintain customer satisfaction. Not all consumer electronics manufacturers have the quality systems and resources as well as the test equipment to guarantee the quality of its PCBs. Conversely, PCB manufacturers utilize a variety of quality systems and procedures to ensure quality assurance. In addition, they have the business relationships to procure top quality electronic components. This is critical because to trust the final product, one must trust the components that are used to produce it.

Customers today use the Internet to research not only the products and services of a consumer electronics company, but also its business reputation. If a consumer electronics company becomes known for producing less than high quality products, this could result in irreversible damage to its business reputation.

This is central to what a PCB Service can do for you: lower your costs and guarantee your product quality to enhance your business reputation. It only makes sense to partner with a contract electronics manufacturer to produce your PCBs.

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Everything You Need To Know About PCB Manufacturing

Printed Circuit Boards (PCB)s are basically what engineers and manufactures use to connect the electronic components of devices. Many materials are used including conductive tracts, pads as well as other copper sheets that are laminated onto nonconductive substrates. These PCBs can either be single or double sided. The single sided types consist of only one layer of copper while the double sided PCBs consist of two copper layers. Vias are used to connect conductors on each layer. The manufacturing of PCBs takes a systematic process, which involves the following steps respectively;

pcb manufacturing

Generation of film;

Films made of copper are generated based on a specific design, made from Mylar. When the Gerber files are presented, they show that particular layer of the PCB.

Selection of Raw materials;

The materials required to make the PCB are sized in such a way that they can accommodate a lot of boards. The standards in the industry dictate that the board should be 0.059 inches thick and should be layered with copper.

Drilling of Holes;

According to the design required, holes are drilled using a carbide drill bits in order to suit the specifications needed for the PCB.

Application of electroless copper;

In order for the drill holes to ensure electric flow to the different layers of the PCB, a layer of copper must be deposited inside the drill holes chemically. The layer undergoes an electrolytic process for it to be thickened.

Application of Photo-resists and image;

Photo sensitive photoresists is applied to the board so that the PCB design can be transferred from the CAD data which is electronic in nature to the physical board.

Pattern plate;

This step involves the facilitation of an electrochemical procedure that leads to the building up of copper thickness into the already drilled holes of the PCB surface. Once this has taken place, tin is used to cover any surface that may be exposed in order to provide protection that is required in the next step.

Strip and Etch

it involves a number of procedures the first one being, the stripping of the photoresists from the PCB. This causes the exposure of copper and its therefor etched. Which involves chemically removing he copper. The tin that was protecting the exposed surface protects the copper circuitry form being chemically removed, to allow the important circuitry of the PCB too be defined. When this is done the protective tin layer can now be removed.


This is where the panel is coated with liquid solder mass layer, which protects the copper circuitry from damage as well as oxidation in order to make the assembling process easier.

Nomenclature (silk screen )

This is where logos, references and other important information are imprinted on the panel board.

Application of Surface finish

All the solderable surfaces are well protected using tin lead, or immersed silver so as to prevent oxidation


In this step, an NC equipment is used to rout the PCB perimeter.

This is pretty much the PCB manufacturing process in entirety and the next step is simply packaging and shipping of the product to customers and buyers. Prices of shipping can be found online.

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